Oncology units have been
developed in 82 institutes in both government medical colleges and government hospitals. There are 246 institutions with radiotherapy facilities across the country. The District Survivin inhibitor cancer Control Programme has been developed to initiate awareness and early detection activities at the district level. Health education has also been promoted under Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical this program.39 The need for the future is to have sufficient numbers of trained oncologists and associated medical workers along with infrastructure and government commitment to tackle head and neck cancer as the major disease burden. Along with this, special emphasis needs to be given to prevention programs by the government, as head and neck cancers are potentially preventable. Abbreviations: GDP gross domestic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical product HNC head and neck cancer HNSCC head and neck squamous cell cancers
HPV human papilloma virus OSMF oral submucous fibrosis.
At the present time, testicular seminomas are commonly categorized into classical seminoma (CS), and into the spermatocytic and anaplastic variants of CS. Mostofi1 established the diagnosis of anaplastic seminoma (AS) in tumors with overall morphologic features of seminoma but with more than three mitotic figures per high-powered Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical field (HPF), cellular irregularity, no fibrovascular septae, few lymphocytes, focal necrosis, and pleomorphic cells with non-clear cytoplasm. On the other hand, Von Hochstetter2 suggested that, if mitotic activity continues to be used in separating AS from CS, the critical threshold should be elevated to six mitoses per HPF. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical According to these criteria, AS constitutes 5%–15% of testicular seminomas.3 There are conflicting reports about the clinical behavior of AS. While Kademian et al.4 and Mostofi and Price5 demonstrated an aggressive clinical pattern, other authors6,7 demonstrated no difference in clinical behavior between AS and
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical CS and suggested that treatment should be the same, stage for stage. There are very few studies and limited information about AS in recent years. The goal of our study was a retrospective screening of seven AS patients staged and treated with radiotherapy post-orchiectomy at the Northern Israel Oncology Center (NIOC) in the years 1986–2006. PATIENTS AND METHODS From 1971 to 2010, 112 stage I and 26 TCL IIA seminoma patients were referred to the NIOC for meticulous post-orchiectomy staging and radiation therapy. Seven patients demonstrated the Mostofi microscopic criteria for AS.1 All patients underwent clinical examination, full hematological and biochemistry profile, specific tumor markers (alpha fetoprotein (AFP), beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (B-HCG), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), and whole-body computerized (CT) scan. Follow-up was provided through regular follow-up visits and a search of the Interior Ministry’s electronic data.