27 Other studies which focused on the Ser9Giy variant of the DRD3 gene reported significant associations, which were supported in two
meta-analyses.28,29 Several interesting studies have now been published regarding the genetics of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The CYP2D6 gene has been associated with increasing weight. In pharmacodynamic analyses, the most consistent findings involve the promoter polymorphisms of the 5-HT2C gene and the leptin gene. Both genes are involved in energy and fat metabolism in studies of humans and animals (reviewed in ref 30, Figure 2). Further interesting findings are reported in the ADRA2A and SNAP-25 genes, with replications in independent samples.31-35 Figure 2. The interaction Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical between peripheral molecules and central pathways modulating food/energy intake. AgRP, Agouti related protein, GABA, gamma Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical aminobutyricacid, MC4, melanocortin receptor 4, NPY, neuropeptide, POMC, proopiomelanocortin, α-MSH, alpha … In summary, studies assessing the genetic underpinnings of side effects to antipsychotic medications have yielded interesting findings, although effect Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sizes for single genes (or gene variants) are small. Genetics of antidepressant response and drug metabolism in depression Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the
fourth major causes of disability worldwide, with tremendous socioeconomic consequences36 Adverse early life events are major predictors of later development of MDD, though genetic factors also appear to have a significant influence (37% heritability in twin studies). Antidepressants are the cornerstone in treating depression; however, only 50% to 70% of the patients respond to initial
therapy, and less than Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 40% patients achieve full remission.37 Furthermore, efficacy of an antidepressant is often only apparent after Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical treating for 4 to 8 weeks. A reliable tool to VX-765 price predict antidepressant response would be of great service to the clinician, leading to greater efficacy and rapidity of response. Pharmacogenetics offers an individually tailored alternative to the trial and error prescription regime. Concordance for antidepressant response has been observed in family studies implicating the role of genetic factors.38,39 Genetics of antidepressant drug metabolism The therapeutic level achieved by antidepressants is heavily influenced by the metabolic activity of the CYP450 enzymes. CYP2D6 is involved and in the metabolism of most tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and some SSRIs. Functional polymorphisms lead to varying degrees of metabolic activity that influence plasma drug levels, and allow for the categorization of distinct phenotypes (see Genetics of antipsychotic drug metabolism section above).6,40,41 The UM phenotype is associated with increased clearance of antidepressants and lack of response.42-44 Accordingly, the PM phenotype is reported to lead to increased adverse events with antidepressant treatment.