They found significant, agerelated decrements in all three tasks, and suggested that working memory may be the most important agerelated mediator in declarative learning and general processing speed. Adamowicz and Hudson66 reported age-related decrements on a visual memory test, and pointed out, that, errors on this task were significantly related to the complexity of the stimulus. Shelton et al67 found a significant age-related decrement, on a visuospatial pairedassociate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical memory task, which was similar in magnitude
to age-related decrements found on a verbal pairedassociate memory task. Light and Zelinski68 reported that, healthy elderly individuals had significantly more deficits in encoding and recalling spatial locations than young individuals. Fahle Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and Daum69 reported agerelated decline in the ability to recall complex geometrical patterns. In a recent, study, Jenkins et
al70 assessed groups of healthy young and older adults using visuospatial and verbal processing speed, working memory, and paired-associate learning tasks. They found significant differences between young and old adults on all three tasks, but the differences were relatively greater on visuospatial tests than on verbal tests. On the basis of these findings, Jenkins et ai70 suggested that visuospatial cognition Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is relatively more affected by aging than Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical verbal cognition. Raz et al71 carried out, MRI volume measurements of cortical PI3K assay regions and assessments of executive functions, working memory, explicit, memory, and priming in a series of healthy individuals ranging from 18 to 77 years of age. They found age-related deficits on all cognitive tasks, although the association was lower for priming tasks.
They also found an age-related Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical loss of prefrontal cortical volume, which was significantly correlated with more severe verbal perseverations. Loss of volume in cortical areas processing visual information was significantly related to lower performance on nonverbal working memory tasks, but the volume of limbic regions was not. related to any of the cognitive tasks assessed. In conclusion, age-related nearly cognitive changes have been reported in several domains such as language (eg, verb naming and verbal fluency), visuospatial functions (eg, face recognition), and executive functions (eg, set, shifting, problem solving). Age-related decline in memory functions are substantial in tasks of declarative learning involving free and cued recall, source recall, and prospective memory (ie, remembering to carry out, an intention at, a future time). On the other hand, agerelated declines are relatively milder on tasks of implicit, short-term, and recognition memory.