n. BLP-SV vaccination required BLP interaction with TLR2. Indeed, the data showed that SIgA responses measured in nasal (Fig. 3B) and vaginal lavages (Fig. 3C) were TLR2 dependent. Previously, it was shown that i.n. vaccination with BLP vaccines induced enhanced SIgA at mucosal tissue in BALB/c mice compared
to parenteral vaccination  and . The potency to induce a mucosal SIgA response was independent of the mouse strain tested, as both C57BL6/J and BALB/c mice induced strong responses (Fig. 3). Similar to the local immune response induced by BLP adjuvanted vaccination, also systemically induced immune responses in BALB/c and C57BL6/J Palbociclib are comparable as shown by enhanced IFN-? producing cells and IAV-specific IgG titres  and . Although the IL-5 cytokine is a differentiation marker for B-cells that produce IgA  we did not detect significant IL-5
cytokine secretion after i.n. BLP-SV vaccination (Fig. 2B). Since TLR2 signalling can also trigger IgA production by human B-cells directly , we suggest that the SIgA responses are at least partly enhanced due to the interaction of BLP with TLR2 on B cells (Fig. 3B and C). Previously, it has been shown that BLP adjuvanted vaccines induce protective immunity to subsequent infection  and . Moreover, recent data showed that i.n. vaccination with a BLP adjuvanted influenza vaccine results in improved protection against both homologous and heterologous influenza challenge infections Paclitaxel order as compared to protection levels observed after conventional parenteral influenza vaccination . These data underline that enhanced systemic and mucosal B-cell responses induced by i.n. vaccination with BLPs result in a strong protective and broad immune response. In conclusion, the interaction of BLPs with TLR2 in vivo is required for the enhanced activation of systemic and local IAV-specific adaptive immune responses as
observed after i.n. BLP-SV vaccination. Especially the ability to induce local IAV-specific immune responses, in particular elevated levels of IAV-specific IFN-? Thiamine-diphosphate kinase producing T-cells and IgA antibody secreting B-cells, make BLPs an attractive immune stimulator to be used in nasal vaccination against influenza infection. Source of funding: This work was supported by grants from the European Union FP7 TOLERAGE: HEALTH-F4-2008-202156, TI Pharma ProjectD5-106, BSIK VIRGO Consortium grant no. 03012, and the Dutch Arthritis Association. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. ”
“Clostridium perfringens is a Gram positive, anaerobe, spore forming bacterium that is classified into five toxinotypes based on production of the four typing toxins (α-, β-, ɛ-, and ι-toxins) . Epsilon toxin (Etx), a β-pore-forming toxin, is produced by C.